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The Role of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) in Computer Vision

Updated: Feb 2

What is a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN)?

CNN, short for Convolutional Neural Networks, is at the heart of many computer vision applications. CNNs are a type of deep learning model that has revolutionized image analysis and recognition tasks. They are inspired by the structure and functioning of the human visual system and are designed to automatically learn and extract features from images.


A Typical Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) Diagram
Typical Convolutional Neural Network Diagram

How do convolutional neural networks work?

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are deep learning structures developed specifically for visual data processing. These networks are used in image recognition-based applications such as image classification, object detection, classification, and face recognition. The working logic of CNNs reflects the mechanisms of the cortex, the human visual processing center, to make complex visual data more understandable and processable.


The basic steps of this process aim to progressively process visual data into simpler and more concise information. CNNs consist of multiple layers, each designed to perform specific tasks in the image recognition process. The three main types of layers in a CNN are convolutional layers, pooling layers, and activation layers.


Implementation of Convolutional Neural Network

Implementing a CNN involves defining the network architecture and training it on labeled datasets. The architecture typically consists of convolutional layers, pooling layers, and fully connected layers. The number of filters, kernel size, step, and activation functions are the key parameters that determine the performance of the network.


Labeled image datasets are used for supervised learning to train a CNN. The Convolutional Network learns to recognize patterns and features by adjusting its parameters during the training process. This process includes forward propagation, where input images are passed through the network, and backpropagation, where the network's performance is evaluated and parameters are updated to minimize loss.


Applying CNNs for Image Classification in Manufacturing

In the manufacturing context, CNNs can be used for a variety of image classification tasks, such as product identification, defect detection, or object recognition. Let's take a closer look at how CNNs can be applied for image classification in the manufacturing industry.


Loading and Preprocessing Data

The first step in applying a CNN for image classification is to load and preprocess the data. In the manufacturing field, this involves collecting a dataset of labeled images representing different classes or categories of interest. For example, in defect detection, the dataset may contain images of both defective and non-defective products.


Once the dataset is obtained, it needs to be preprocessed to ensure uniformity and compatibility with the CNN model. This usually involves resizing images to a fixed size, normalizing pixel values to a common scale, and splitting the dataset into training and testing sets.


Creating the CNN Model

The next step is to define and build the CNN model. This involves determining the architecture of the network, including the number and configuration of convolutional, pooling, and fully connected layers. The choice of architecture depends on the specific image classification task and the complexity of the dataset.


In addition to layers, other important considerations in building the CNN model include the selection of activation functions, optimization algorithms, and loss functions. These choices can significantly affect the model's performance and accuracy.


Deploying the CNN Model in Real-world Applications

Once the CNN model has been trained and evaluated, it can be used in real-world manufacturing applications. This use may include integrating the model into existing manufacturing systems, such as inspection machines or robots, to perform automatic image classification tasks. The model can also be used to analyze real-time video streams from cameras installed on the production floor, enabling real-time monitoring and decision-making. Let's take a look at the Computer Vision solutions that our company, Dataguess, has implemented in manufacturing and various fields.


Real-world Applications of Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision in Manufacturing

The integration of artificial intelligence and computer vision technologies into manufacturing is still in its infancy, but the potential for growth and innovation is huge. As these technologies continue to develop and evolve, we can expect to see even more advanced applications and capabilities in the manufacturing industry.


For example, Dataguess Inspector detects defects and errors in products during the manufacturing process using Deep Learning and Computer Vision technologies, which help reduce manufacturing errors and improve product quality.


Additionally, tools like Dataguess Counter use Computer Vision technology to classify and count products, simulating the human thought process to make complex decisions quickly and consistently.


In terms of occupational health and safety, Dataguess Guard informs officials and employees in risky field environments and ensures that the necessary precautions are taken at the right time.


Dataguess Observer is used for people counting and density mapping, which increases security by creating density maps in areas with heavy human traffic and detecting dangerous behavior.


Finally, Dataguess Tracer facilitates product management and logistics by providing real-time tracking of carts and products, thanks to markers placed on product carts.


These examples show how Artificial Intelligence and Computer Vision can be integrated into production processes and how this integration can deliver significant improvements in areas such as efficiency, safety, and quality control.


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